C files I/O functions handle data on a secondary storage device, such as a hard disk.
C can handle files as Stream-oriented data (Text) files, and System oriented data (Binary) files.
|Stream-oriented data files||The data is stored in the same manner as it appears on the screen. The I/O operations like buffering, data conversions, etc. take place automatically.|
|System-oriented data files||System-oriented data files are more closely associated with the OS and data stored in memory without converting into text format.|
C File Operations
Five major operations can be performed on file are:
- Creation of a new file.
- Opening an existing file.
- Reading data from a file.
- Writing data in a file.
- Closing a file.
Steps for Processing a File
- Declare a file pointer variable.
- Open a file using fopen() function.
- Process the file using the suitable function.
- Close the file using fclose() function.
To handling files in C, file input/output functions available in the stdio library are:
|fopen||Opens a file.|
|fclose||Closes a file.|
|getc||Reads a character from a file|
|putc||Writes a character to a file|
|putw||Write an integer|
|fprintf||Prints formatted output to a file|
|fscanf||Reads formatted input from a file|
|fgets||Read string of characters from a file|
|fputs||Write string of characters to file|
|feof||Detects end-of-file marker in a file|