Linux is an operating system originating from UNIX and has become increasingly popular. In this tutorial, you will explore the history and development of Linux and its user-based model and unique interface, which draws heavily from the UNIX tradition.
The look and feel of Linux are similar to other UNIX systems, as UNIX compatibility was a primary design goal for the Linux project. However, compared to most UNIX systems, Linux is much younger. It was created in 1991 by a Finnish student named Linus Torvalds, who wrote and launched a small, self-contained kernel for the 80386 processor. During its early development, the Linux source code was made freely available on the Internet, allowing anyone to create their own version or distribution. Over time, the Linux system expanded to include much of the functionality of UNIX, starting with an initial kernel that used only a small subset of UNIX system services.
The Linux Kernel
On May 14, 1991, the first version of the Linux kernel, Version 0.01, was released to the public. At that time, it was only compatible with 80386-compatible Intel processors and hardware and had no networking features. Additionally, the virtual memory subsystem was quite basic and did not support memory-mapped files. Moreover, it had limited device driver support.
Linux 1.0, released on March 14, 1994, marked a major milestone for the Linux operating system. This release came after three years of rapid development of the Linux kernel. The most notable new feature was the networking version 1.0, which included support for UNIX's standard TCP/IP protocol suite and a BSD compatible socket interface for network programming. Additionally, a wide range of extra hardware support was added to this release.
System V UNIX-style inter-process communication (IPC), which includes collective memory, semaphores, and message queues, was also implemented. Simple support for dynamically loadable and unloadable kernel modules was supplied as well.
Design Principles of Linux OS
At first glance, Linux appears similar to standard UNIX operating systems with a non-microkernel design. It is a multiuser, multitasking system with a complete set of UNIX-compatible tools. The file system in Linux follows the traditional UNIX format, and it utilizes the typical UNIX networking model to its fullest potential.
More on Linux OS
The design of Linux's interior was greatly influenced by the history of its development as an operating system. Although Linux can run on various platforms, it was initially created solely for PC architecture. During its early development, a significant amount of work was done by individuals rather than well-funded research facilities. As a result, Linux was designed to maximize functionality using limited resources from the outset.
Linux is now able to run smoothly on a multiprocessor device equipped with several gigabytes of storage and hundreds of megabytes of RAM. However, it can still operate effectively with just 4 MB of memory. The emphasis on speed and efficiency remains a fundamental aspect of Linux's design goals, and recent and ongoing efforts are focused on achieving the third and fourth primary design objectives.
- standardization and
which Linux has also achieved at the same time.