The database is becoming increasingly integrated, and it has created a clamor for standard language, which can be used to work in different types of computing environments. The SQL has proved to be the standard language as it allows programmers or developers to learn one set of commands and use them to create, retrieve, alter, and or transfer data regardless of whether they are working on the PC, a workstation, a mini or mainframe. In this chapter, you will learn about the introduction of the structured query language.

SQL(Structured Query Language) is a standard database programming language used for accessing and manipulating data in a database.

For handling database and database-related programming, programmers need to have some medium, or you can say interface to particularize a set of commands or codes to deal with a database or to access the database's data. In this chapter, you have a brief introduction of those terminologies that you will study during the journey towards learning SQL.

What Will You Get Learning SQL?

SQL gives unique learning and database handling techniques on Structured Query language and will help you make better command over the SQL queries and to deal with these codes efficiently. Since SQL helps you to include database creation, database or table deletion, fetching row data and modifying those data, etc., in parallel, SQL makes things automatic and smooth for end-users to access and deal with that application's data efficiently.

What Is SQL?

SQL (Structured Query Language) is a computer-based structured, formatted database language designed for managing data in relational database managing systems (RDBMS). SQL is a standardized computer language which was initially developed by IBM for querying, altering and defining relational databases, using declarative statements.

  • SQL is Structured Query Language, which was initially developed by IBM.
  • SQL is pronounced as "sequel".
  • SQL is a computer language for storing, manipulating, and retrieving data in a relational database.
  • SQL is the standard language for Relation Database System.

History of SQL

There are many versions available for SQL. The original version of SQL was developed at IBM's San Jose Research Laboratory (now called Almaden Research Center). This language was initially named as Sequel, in the early 1970s, it was implemented as a part of the R project. The sequel language was evolved since then, and gradually its name has been changed to SQL.

In 1986, the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) published as SQL standard that was updated again in 1992. The latest ISO standard of SQL was released in 2008 and named as SQL:2008. SQL has established itself as the standard relational database language.

  • SQL was developed In 1970 by Donald D. Chamberlin and Raymond F. Boyce at IBM.
  • First, the developed version is initially called SEQUEL(Structured English Query Language).
  • Relational software released a first commercial product called System/R in 1979.
  • The SEQUEL acronym was later changed to SQL due to the trademark conflict issue.
  • Later, IBM starts developing commercial products on SQL based on the prototype of System/R.

What Can SQL Do?

  • SQL can CREATE new databases and its objects like (table, index, views, store procedure, functions, and triggers).
  • SQL can ALTER the structure of the existing databases.
  • SQL can DROP(delete) objects from the database.
  • SQL can TRUNCATE(remove) all records from the tables.
  • SQL can COMMENT to the data dictionary.
  • SQL can RENAME an object.
  • SQL can SELECT(retrieve) data from the database.
  • SQL can INSERT data into a table.
  • SQL can UPDATE existing data within a table.
  • SQL can DELETE records from a database table.
  • SQL can set GRANT and REVOKE privileges of users in a database.