Computer Fundamentals Tutorial Index

The computer is well-known to us, the first counting device our ancestors used in the early decades. But also before that, they utilized sticks, bones, and stones as their counting implements. As the evolution of the human mind and technology improved with time, the existence of more computing devices increased. In this tutorial, we will learn the History of computers and the Timeline according to the subsequent years.

First‌ ‌Computer‌ ‌Design‌

In the 19th century, a renowned Mathematician, Charles Babbage, developed and partly built a Victorian-era computer named the Analytical Engine. The fundamental component of the oldest machine was the input, having the programs and data that the user had to provide to the Analytical Machine through punched cards, a technique being employed at the time to handle mechanical looms like the Jacquard loom. The design of the analytical engine was initiated in 1833.

The Function ‌of‌ ‌Ancient‌ ‌Computers‌

The computer was born not for amusement or email but out of a requirement to solve a complicated number-crunching crisis. By 1880, the American population had expanded so widely that it took more than seven years to tabulate the US census results. The government pursued a quicker method to get the job done, offering an upgrade to the punch-card-based computers that grabbed up total room space.

Ancient‌ ‌Theory‌ ‌of‌ ‌Computer

Eventually, the notion of numerals became tangible and familiar enough for counting to emerge and instructing sequences to others. It led to the evolution of the numerical system and mathematical notation, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, square root, and squaring, as mathematical operations. All this led to the birth of the Calculator by Blaise Pascal in 1642. Its name is Pascaline.

Timeline of Computer History

Year Event
1801 Joseph Marie Jacquard created a loom in France that renders punched wooden cards.
1822 English mathematician Charles Babbage developed a calculating device called the Analytical Engine, which computes number tables.
1890 Herman Hollerith devised a punch card system to compute the 1880 census, executing the task for merely three years, preserving the government \$5 million.
1936 Alan Turing proposed the concept of a universal machine, subsequently dubbed the Turing machine, competent in computing anything computable.
1937 J.V. Atanasoff, a Physics and Mathematics Professor at Iowa State University, attempted to construct the first computer lacking shafts, gears, or belts.
1941 J.V. Atanasoff and his graduate student, Clifford Berry, invented the computer that could decrypt 29 equations simultaneously.
1943-1944 Pennsylvania Professors John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert designed the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC).
1946 After acquiring finance from the Census Bureau, Mauchly and Presper developed the UNIVAC, the first saleable computer.
1953 Grace Hopper developed the first computer language, becoming known as COBOL. Thomas Johnson Watson Jr., the son of IBM CEO Thomas Johnson Watson Sr., created the IBM 701 EDPM, assisting the United Nations in holding invoices on Korea during the war.
1958 Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce reveal the integrated circuit, well-known as the computer chip.
1964 Douglas Engelbart reveals a prototype of the current computer, having a mouse and a Graphical User Interface (GUI).
1970 The newly initiated Intel reveals the Intel 1103, the first Dynamic Access Memory (DRAM) chip.
1971 Alan Shugart directs a team of IBM engineers who developed the floppy disk permitting data to be shared among computers.
1973 Robert Metcalfe, a member of the research team for Xerox, developed an Ethernet, linking numerous computers and other hardware.
1974-1977 Many personal computers hit the demand, including the IBM 5100, Scelbi& Mark-8 Altair, and Radio Shack's TRS-80.
1976 According to Stanford University, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak initiated Apple Computers, the first computer holding a single-circuit board.
1981 The first IBM personal computer, presented on 12 August 1981, operated the MS-DOS operating system.
1986 Compaq brought the Deskpro 386 to demand. Its 32-bit architecture furnishes a speed equivalent to mainframes.
1990 Tim Berners-Lee, a researcher at CERN, originated the HyperText Markup Language (HTML), offering elevation to the World Wide Web.
2004 Facebook, a social networking site, takes off.
2005 YouTube, a video-sharing service, was established.
2007 The iPhone fetches many computer functions to the smartphone.
2009 Microsoft released Windows 7, which can pin applications to the taskbar and write recognition.
2011 Google launched the Chrome Book, a laptop that operates on Google Chrome OS.
2019 Apple declared iPadOS for their tablet appliances in June.
2020 The Microsoft Internet Games service was terminated for Windows 7 on 22 January.
2021 Apple launched the Apple AirTag.