The python is an Object-oriented programming language. This means there exists a concept called 'class' that lets the programmer structure the codes of software in a fashioned way. Because of the use of classes and objects, the programming became easy to understand and code.
Defining Class and Object
A class is a technique to group functions and data members and put them in a container so that they can be accessed later by using a dot (.) operator. Objects are the basic runtime entities of object-oriented programming. It defines the instance of a class. Objects get their variables and functions from classes, and the class we will be creating are the templates made to create the object.
- class: Classes are a user-defined data type that is used to encapsulate data and associated functions together. It also helps in binding data together into a single unit.
- Data Member: A variable or memory location name that holds value to does a specific task within a program.
- Member Function: They are the functions, usually a block of a code snippet that is written to re-use it.
- Instance variable: A variable that is defined inside a method of a class.
- Function Overloading: This technique is used to assign multiple tasks to a single function, and the tasks are performed based on the number of arguments or the type of argument the function has.
- Operator Overloading: It is the technique of assigning multiple functions/tasks to a particular operator.
- Inheritance: It is the process of acquiring the properties of one class to another, i.e., one class can acquire the properties of another.
- Instantiation: It is the technique of creating an instance of a class.
Program for Class in Python
class karl : varabl = 'Hello' def function(self) : print ("This is a message Hello")
Another program to explain functions inside a class:
class karl(object) : def __init__(self, x, y): self.x = x self.y = y def sample(self) : print ("This is just a sample code")
In the above code, we created a class name karl using the 'class' keyword. And two functions are used namely __init__() (for setting the instance variable) & sample(). Classes are used instead of modules because programmers can take this class 'karl' & use it or modify it as many times as we want & each one won't interfere with each other. Importing a module brings the entire program into use.
Creating Objects (Instance of A Class)
Let's see an example to show how to create an object:
class student: def __init__(self, roll, name): self.r = roll self.n = name print ((self.n)) #... stud1 = student(1, "Alex") stud2 = student(2, "Karlos") print ("Data successfully stored in variables")
Alex Karlos Data successfully stored in variables
Accessing Object Variables
We can access the object's variable using the dot (.) operator.
The syntax is:
Object attributes can also be accessed by using the dot operator.
stud1.display() stud2.display() print ("total number of students are: %d" % student.i)
Use of Pre-defined Functions
Instead of using general statements to access attributes, programmers can use the following functions:
- getattr( obj, name [,default] ) : used to access object's attribute.
- hasattr( object, name): used for checking whether the attribute exists or not.
- setattr( obj, name, value ) : set or create an attribute, if it doesn't exist.
- delattr( obj, name ) : used to delete an attribute.
Built-in Class Attributes
All the Python built-in class attributes can be accessed using dot (.) operator like other attributes.
The built-in class attributes are:
- __dict__: This attribute is a dictionary that contains the class's -namespace.
- __doc__: Used for class documentation string.
- __name__: used as class-name.
- __module__: used to define the module name for the class in which it is defined. In interactive mode, it is __main__.
- __bases__: An empty tuple containing the base-class.