C++ Manipulating Strings

A string is a sequence of character. As you know that C++ does not support built-in string type, you have used earlier those null character based terminated array of characters to store and manipulate strings. These strings are termed as C Strings. It often becomes inefficient performing operations on C strings. Programmers can also define their own string classes with appropriate member functions to manipulate strings. ANSI standard C++ introduces a new class called string which is an improvised version of C strings in several ways. In many cases, the strings object may be treated like any other built-in data type. The string is treated as another container class for C++.

The C Style String

The C style string belongs to C language and continues to support in C++ also strings in C are the one-dimensional array of characters which gets terminated by \0 (null character).

This is how the strings in C are declared:

char ch[6] = {'H', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o', '
char ch[6] = {'H', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o', '\0'};
'};

Actually, you do not place the null character at the end of a string constant. The C++ compiler automatically places the \0 at the end of the string when it initializes the array.

String Class in C++

The string class is huge and includes many constructors, member functions, and operators.

Programmers may use the constructors, operators and member functions to achieve the following:

  • Creating string objects
  • Reading string objects from keyboard
  • Displaying string objects to the screen
  • Finding a substring from a string
  • Modifying string
  • Adding objects of string
  • Comparing strings
  • Accessing characters of a string
  • Obtaining the size or length of a string, etc...

Manipulate Null-terminated strings

C++ supports a wide range of functions that manipulate null-terminated strings. These are:

  • strcpy(str1, str2): Copies string str2 into string str1.
  • strcat(str1, str2): Concatenates string str2 onto the end of string str1.
  • strlen(str1): Returns the length of string str1.
  • strcmp(str1, str2): Returns 0 if str1 and str2 are the same; less than 0 if str1<str2; greater than 0 if str1>str2.
  • strchr(str1, ch): Returns a pointer to the first occurrence of character ch in string str1.
  • strstr(str1, str2): Returns a pointer to the first occurrence of string str2 in string str1.

Important functions supported by String Class

  • append(): This function appends a part of a string to another string
  • assign():This function assigns a partial string
  • at(): This function obtains the character stored at a specified location
  • begin(): This function returns a reference to the start of the string
  • capacity(): This function gives the total element that can be stored
  • compare(): This function compares a string against the invoking string
  • empty(): This function returns true if the string is empty
  • end(): This function returns a reference to the end of the string
  • erase(): This function removes character as specified
  • find(): This function searches for the occurrence of a specified substring
  • length(): It gives the size of a string or the number of elements of a string
  • swap(): This function swaps the given string with the invoking one

Important Constructors obtained by String Class

  • String(): This constructor is used for creating an empty string
  • String(const char *str): This constructor is used for creating string objects from a null-terminated string
  • String(const string *str): This constructor is used for creating a string object from another string object

Operators used for String Objects

  1. =: assignment
  2. +: concatenation
  3. ==: Equality
  4. !=: Inequality
  5. <: Less than
  6. <=: Less than or equal
  7. >: Greater than
  8. >=: Greater than or equal
  9. []: Subscription
  10. <<: Output
  11. >>: Input

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