C++ is a multi-paradigm programming language that supports object-oriented programming (OOP), created by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1983 at Bell Labs, C++ is an extension(superset) of C programming, and the programs written in C language can run in C++ compilers.
Uses of C++
Programmers use C++ to create computer software. It is commonly used in the manufacture of system software, drivers for various computer devices, software for servers, and software for specific applications. It is also widely used in the manufacture of video games.
C++ is used by many programmers of different types and comes from various fields. C++ is mainly used to write device driver programs, system software, and applications that depend on direct hardware manipulation under real-time constraints. It is also used to teach the basics of object-oriented features because it is simple and used in research. Also, many primary user interfaces and Windows and Macintosh system files are written using C++. So, C++ is a popular, strong, and frequently used programming language of this modern era.
Object-Oriented Programming and C++
C++ is not a purely object-oriented language because object-oriented means to work with objects and classes, but in C++, you can write code without creating a class.
Features of Object Oriented C++
- The main focus remains on data rather than procedures.
- Object-oriented programs are segmented into parts called objects.
- Data structures are designed to categorize objects.
- Data members and functions are tied together as a data structure.
- Data can be hidden and cannot be accessed by external functions using an access specifier.
- Objects can communicate among themselves using functions.
- New data and functions can be easily added anywhere within a program whenever required.
- Since this is an object-oriented programming language, it follows a bottom-up programming approach, i.e., the execution of codes starts from the main, which resides in the lower section, and then based on the member function call, the working is done from the classes.
The object-oriented approach is a recent concept among programming paradigms and has various areas of progress. Object-oriented programming is a technique that provides a way of modularizing programs by creating a memory area as a partition for both data and functions that can further be used as a template to create copies of modules on demand.
Standard Libraries in C++
The C++ standard library has been built over many years and consists of three essential parts:
- C++ core language provides all the building blocks, including data types, variables, literals, etc.
- The C++ Standard Library has a rich set of methods for manipulating files and strings.
- The STL(Standard Template Library) provides a rich set of template classes for manipulating data structures.
ANSI Standard for C++
ANSI (American National Standards Institute) and the ANSI standard began an effort to ensure that C++ code became portable. Code written for Microsoft's compiler will compile without errors and can run on Mac, Linux, or any other OS compiler. So, all major C++ compilers support the ANSI Standard.