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Internet Reference Models

In the world of web and internet, the term "reference model" defined a standard means of communication architecture which is accepted worldwide. In this chapter, you will learn about the two popular internet reference models - OSI model and TCP/IP Reference Model.


    What is Client-Server Architecture?

    The popular is the client-server architecture which is a computing model, where the server hosts, distributes and controls the majority of the resources as well as services to be used by the client.

      Repeat String in Python

      Sometimes we need to repeat the string in the program, and we can do this easily by using the repetition operator in Python. The repetition operator is denoted by a '' symbol and is useful for repeating strings to a certain length.

        Checking Membership in Python

        In Python, we can check whether a string or character is a member of another string or not using "in" or "not in" operators.

        • Python membership operators are described.
        • A Python Program to demonstrate membership operators.

        Remove Space From a String in Python

        Spaces are also considered as a character inside a string, and sometimes unnecessary spaces in the string cause wrong results. Therefore, such blank spaces should be removed from the string before being used.

          What is Deadlock in Java Threads?

          In Java, deadlock is a situation that arises in the multithreading concept. This situation may appear in cases where one of your thread is waiting for an object lock, which is acquired by another thread and the second thread waiting for object lock acquired by the first one.

            Bit Fields in C

            In C, you can state the size of your structure (struct) or union members in the form of bits. This concept is to because of efficiently utilizing the memory when you know that your amount of a field or collection of fields is not going to exceed a specific limit or is in-between the desired range.

              C Memory Management

              C language provides many functions that come in header files to deal with the allocation and management of memories. In this tutorial, you will find brief information about managing memory in your program using some functions and their respective header files.

                Web-based Database Management System

                The Web-based database management system is one of the essential parts of DBMS and is used to store web application data. Web-based Database management system is used to handle those databases that are having data regarding E-commerce, E-business, Blog, e-mail and other online applications.


                  What is Web?

                  The web is a hypermedia-based structure which provides a source of browsing information over the internet in a non-sequential format by the use of hyperlinks which redirects users to more resources and information.

                    Data Recovery in DBMS

                    Data Recovery is the method of restoring the database to its correct state in the event of a failure at the time of the transaction or after the end of a process.

                    • What is Data Recovery?
                    • What is the Need for Recovery of data?
                    • Recovery Facilities.

                    Transaction and Concurrency Control

                    DBMS implements a concurrency control technique using a protocol which prevents database accesses from prying with one another.

                    • What is Transaction in DBMS?
                    • What is Concurrency Control in DBMS?

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