Format specifiers can be defined as the operators associated with the printf() function for printing the data referred to by any object or any variable. When a value is stored in a particular variable, you cannot print the value stored in the variable straightforwardly without using the format specifiers. You can retrieve the data stored in the variables and print them onto the console screen by implementing these format specifiers in a printf() function.

Format specifiers start with a percentage % operator and are followed by a unique character for identifying the data type.

There are mostly six types of format specifiers that are available in C.

List of format specifiers in C

Format Specifier Description
%d Integer Format Specifier
%f Float Format Specifier
%c Character Format Specifier
%s String Format Specifier
%u Unsigned Integer Format Specifier
%ld Long Int Format Specifier

Integer Format Specifier %d

The %d format specifier is implemented for representing integer values. The printf() function is used to print the integer value stored in the variable.

Syntax:
printf("%d",<variable name>);

Float Format Specifier %f

The %f format specifier is implemented for representing fractional values. It is implemented within the printf() function for printing the fractional or floating value stored in the variable. Whenever you need to print any fractional or floating data, you have to use the %f format specifier.

Syntax:
printf("%f", <variable name>);

Character Format Specifier %c

The %c format specifier is implemented for representing characters. It is used with the printf() function for printing the character stored in a variable. You should incorporate the %c format specifier when you want to print character data.

Syntax:
printf("%c",<variable name>);

String Format Specifier %s

The %s format specifier is implemented for representing strings. It is used in the printf() function for printing a string stored in the character array variable. When you have to print a string, you should implement the %s format specifier.

Syntax:
printf("%s",<variable name>);

Unsigned Integer Format Specifier %u

The %u format specifier is implemented for fetching values from the address of a variable having an unsigned decimal integer stored in the memory. It is used within the printf() function for printing the unsigned integer variable.

Syntax:
printf("%u",<variable name>);

Long Int Format Specifier %ld

The %ld format specifier is implemented for representing long integer values. It is implemented with the printf() function for printing the long integer value stored in the variable.

Syntax:
printf("%ld",<variable name>);