C operators are symbols that are used to perform mathematical or logical manipulations. C programming language is rich with built-in operators. Operators take part in a program for manipulating data and variables and form a part of the mathematical or logical expressions.

Types of Operators in C

The c programming language offers various types of operators having different functioning capabilities.

Arithmetic Operators

Arithmetic Operators are used for performing mathematical calculations like addition (+), subtraction (-), multiplication (*), division (/), and modulus (%).

Operator Description
+ Addition
- Subtraction
* Multiplication
/ Division
% Modulus

C Program to Add Two Numbers


#include <stdio.h>
void main()
 int i=3,j=7,k; /* Variables Defining and Assign values */

 printf("sum of two numbers is %d\n", k); 

Program Output:


Increment and Decrement Operators

Increment and Decrement Operators are useful operators generally used to minimize the calculation, i.e. ++x and x++ means x=x+1 or -x and x--means x=x-1. But there is a slight difference between ++ or -- written before or after the operand. Applying the pre-increment first adds one to the operand, and then the result is assigned to the variable on the left, whereas post-increment first assigns the value to the variable on the left and then increments the operand.

Operator Description
++ Increment
−− Decrement

C Program Demonstrate Prefix and Postfix Modes

#include <stdio.h>
//stdio.h is a header file used for input.output purpose.

void main()
    //set a and b both equal to 5.
    int a=5, b=5;
    //Print them and decrementing each time.
    //Use postfix mode for a and prefix mode for b.
    printf("\n%d %d",a--,--b);
    printf("\n%d %d",a--,--b);
    printf("\n%d %d",a--,--b);
    printf("\n%d %d",a--,--b);
    printf("\n%d %d",a--,--b);

Program Output:

5 4
4 3
3 2
2 1
1 0

Relational Operators

Relational operators are used to compare two quantities or values.

Operator Description
== Is equal to
!= It is not equal to
> Greater than
< Less than
>= Greater than or equal to
<= Less than or equal to

Logical Operators

C provides three logical operators when we test more than one condition to make decisions. These are: && (meaning logical AND), || (meaning logical OR) and ! (meaning logical NOT).

Operator Description
&& And operator. It performs logical conjunction of two expressions. (if both expressions evaluate to True, the result is True. If either expression evaluates to False, the result is False)
|| Or operator. It performs a logical disjunction on two expressions. (if either or both expressions evaluate to True, the result is True)
! Not operator. It performs logical negation on an expression.

Bitwise Operators

C provides a special operator for bit operation between two variables.

Operator Description
<< Binary Left Shift Operator
>> Binary Right Shift Operator
~ Binary Ones Complement Operator
& Binary AND Operator
^ Binary XOR Operator
| Binary OR Operator

Assignment Operators

Assignment operators are applied to assign the result of an expression to a variable. C has a collection of shorthand assignment operators.

Operator Description
= Assign
+= Increments then assign
-= Decrements then assign
*= Multiplies then assign
/= Divides then assign
%= Modulus then assign
<<= Left shift and assign
>>= Right shift and assign
&= Bitwise AND assign
^= Bitwise exclusive OR and assign
|= Bitwise inclusive OR and assign

Conditional Operator

C offers a ternary operator, which is the conditional operator (?: in combination), to construct conditional expressions.

Operator Description
? :  Conditional Expression

Special Operators

C supports some special operators

Operator Description
sizeof()  Returns the size of a memory location.
&  Returns the address of a memory location.
*  Pointer to a variable.

Program to Demonstrate the Use of sizeof() Operator


#include <stdio.h>
void main()
    int i=10; // Variables Defining and Assign values
    printf("integer: %d\n", sizeof(i));

Program Output:


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