C operators are symbols that are used to perform mathematical or logical manipulations. The C programming language is rich with built-in operators. Operators take part in a program for manipulating data and variables and form a part of the mathematical or logical expressions.
Types of Operators in C
- Arithmetic Operators
- Relational Operators
- Logical Operators
- Assignment Operators
- Increment and Decrement Operators
- Conditional Operator
- Bitwise Operators
- Special Operators
Arithmetic Operators
Arithmetic Operators are used to performing mathematical calculations like addition (+), subtraction (-), multiplication (*), division (/) and modulus (%).
Operator | Description |
---|---|
+ | Addition |
- | Subtraction |
* | Multiplication |
/ | Division |
% | Modulus |
C Program to Add Two Numbers
#include <stdio.h>
void main()
{
int i=3,j=7,k; /* Variables Defining and Assign values */
k=i+j;
printf("sum of two numbers is %d\n", k);
}
Increment and Decrement Operators
Increment and Decrement Operators are useful operators generally used to minimize the calculation, i.e. ++x and x++ means x=x+1 or -x and x−−means x=x-1. But there is a slight difference between ++ or −− written before or after the operand. Applying the pre-increment first add one to the operand and then the result is assigned to the variable on the left whereas post-increment first assigns the value to the variable on the left and then increment the operand.
Operator | Description |
---|---|
++ | Increment |
−− | Decrement |
#include <stdio.h>
//stdio.h is a header file used for input.output purpose.
void main()
{
//set a and b both equal to 5.
int a=5, b=5;
//Print them and decrementing each time.
//Use postfix mode for a and prefix mode for b.
printf("\n%d %d",a--,--b);
printf("\n%d %d",a--,--b);
printf("\n%d %d",a--,--b);
printf("\n%d %d",a--,--b);
printf("\n%d %d",a--,--b);
}
5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 0
Relational Operators
Relational operators are used to comparing two quantities or values.
Operator | Description |
---|---|
== | Is equal to |
!= | Is not equal to |
> | Greater than |
< | Less than |
>= | Greater than or equal to |
<= | Less than or equal to |
Logical Operators
C provides three logical operators when we test more than one condition to make decisions. These are: && (meaning logical AND), || (meaning logical OR) and ! (meaning logical NOT).
Operator | Description |
---|---|
&& | And operator. It performs logical conjunction of two expressions. (if both expressions evaluate to True, result is True. If either expression evaluates to False, the result is False) |
|| | Or operator. It performs a logical disjunction on two expressions. (if either or both expressions evaluate to True, the result is True) |
! | Not operator. It performs logical negation on an expression. |
Bitwise Operators
C provides a special operator for bit operation between two variables.
Operator | Description |
---|---|
<< | Binary Left Shift Operator |
>> | Binary Right Shift Operator |
~ | Binary Ones Complement Operator |
& | Binary AND Operator |
^ | Binary XOR Operator |
| | Binary OR Operator |
Assignment Operators
Assignment operators applied to assign the result of an expression to a variable. C has a collection of shorthand assignment operators.
Operator | Description |
---|---|
= | Assign |
+= | Increments then assign |
-= | Decrements then assign |
*= | Multiplies then assign |
/= | Divides then assign |
%= | Modulus then assign |
<<= | Left shift and assign |
>>= | Right shift and assign |
&= | Bitwise AND assign |
^= | Bitwise exclusive OR and assign |
|= | Bitwise inclusive OR and assign |
Conditional Operator
C offers a ternary operator which is the conditional operator (?: in combination) to construct conditional expressions.
Operator | Description |
---|---|
? : | Conditional Expression |
Special Operators
C supports some special operators
Operator | Description |
---|---|
sizeof() | Returns the size of a memory location. |
& | Returns the address of a memory location. |
* | Pointer to a variable. |
Program to demonstrate the use of sizeof operator
#include <stdio.h>
void main()
{
int i=10; // Variables Defining and Assign values
printf("integer: %d\n", sizeof(i));
}